Center for Human Nutrition

Medical Nutrition Syllabus

Guide to Healthy Diet and Lifestyle

Exercise Guidelines

Managing Obesity

Exercise Prescription

Medicine and Surgery Nutrition Assessment Checklist

Pediatric Nutrition Assessment Checklist

Adolescent Nutrition Assessment Checklist
UCLA HEALTH NETWORK
Guide to Healthy Diet and Lifestyle
Lose Weight and Stay Slim

Why Lose Weight ?

The health consequences of obesity include some of the most common chronic diseases in our society. Obesity is an independent risk factor for heart disease, the most common killer disease in our country. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension and stroke, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, and sleep apnea are all more common in obese individuals. Weight loss of only 20 pounds can be associated with marked reductions in the risk of these chronic diseases. Conversely, adult weight gain is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in this country and there has been a thirty percent increase in the incidence of obesity over the past ten years. The exact cause of this epidemic has not been determined, but more hectic lifestyles, with reduced time for exercise and increased caloric intake, have been identified as potential factors.

Making Changes in Diet and Lifestyle

In overweight and mildly obese patients, diet, exercise and lifestyle approaches should be used. The behavioral tools available include confirming readiness to change, using stimulus control to minimize the intake of trigger foods, a diet plan which utilizes a meal replacement approach and portion-controlled meals to reduce caloric intake, aerobic and heavy resistance exercise, relapse prevention, social support, and stress reduction.

Trigger Foods

The first step in nutritional education is to make the patient understand the need to minimize the intake of so-called trigger foods. Trigger foods are foods that have an unexpected amount of "hidden" fat or calories. The intake of these foods is often in response to something other than hunger; that is, patients may eat them a setting where hunger is not the prime stimulation. In many cases, patients eat such foods unconsciously, as in the case of potato chips, where "you can't eat just one." The motivation for eating trigger foods may be boredom, agitation, depression, or happiness. Patients may report, for example, that creamy chocolate or ice cream is soothing after a stressful day. Almost any stimulus other than hunger can work to increase the intake of trigger foods. Encourage patients to identify the trigger foods that are problematic for them and ask that they target these food-mood connections for behavior change. Replacing high-fat, high-calorie trigger food items with healthier substitutes is also an effective strategy.

Trigger Foods
Instead of.....Try.....
Nuts Small serving of soy nuts
Cheese and Cheese Pizza Whole grain pasta + tomato sauce
Salad Dressing Flavored/Seasoned vinegar
Mayonnaise, Margarine and Butter Ketchup or mustard on sandwiches; jam on whole grain bread
Red Meat and Fatty Fish Chicken or turkey breast, shrimp, Tuna, halibut, soy meat substitutes
Beans, Rice, Potatoes, Pasta Double vegetables, omit starch
Desserts Fresh fruit with chocolate syrup
Colas and Juices Plain water or mineral water with Lemon or lime, or a few ounces of 100% fruit juice
Meal Plans

High-protein foods send signals to the brain that keep you from being hungry for hours-stronger signals than either carbohydrate or fat. As the protein in your food is digested in your intestines, it is broken down to amino acids, some of which can enter the brain, where they can affect the balance of signals that monitor how hungry or full you are. Our typical breakfasts of refined cereal grains often have too little protein in them to send the kind of signal of fullness that will last until lunch. A meal replacement approach, using a high protein soy or soy/why blend protein powder as a base for a shake mixed with nonfat milk or soy milk and fruit, is an excellent strategy for controlling hunger and calories.

Below are two meal plans, one which provides 1200 calories and approximately 100 grams of protein per day, which should be suitable for most women, and one which provides 1500 calories and about 150 grams of protein per day, which should be suitable for most men.

1200 CALORIE MEAL PLAN
Breakfast : 1 Protein Unit + 1 Fruit
Examples:
  • Protein powder in blender with 1 cup nonfat milk
    AND 1 cup blueberries

    OR:

  • 1/3 Cup soy nugget cereal
    WITH 1 Cup Fat-Free Milk or plain soy milk
    AND 1cup strawberries

    OR:

  • 7 Egg Whites (hard boiled or cooked with pan spray as an omelet)
    WITH 1/2 grapefruit

    OR:

  • 1 cup nonfat cottage cheese
    AND 1 cup pineapple
Lunch: 1 Protein Unit + 2 vegetables + salad + 1 fruit
Examples:
  • 3 ounces roasted chicken breast
    WITH 4 Cups of Salad Greens with Seasoned Vinegar
    AND 2 cups steamed broccoli
    AND 1 large Orange

    OR:

  • 2 Soy Burger patties
    WITH 2 cups cauliflower
    AND 4 cups of Salad Greens with Seasoned Vinegar
    AND 1cup watermelon
PM Snack:
  • 1 Fruit

Dinner : 2 Protein Units + 2 vegetables + salad + 1 grain + 1 fruit
Examples:
  • 8 ounces broiled fish with teriyaki sauce AND 1 cup steamed spinach + 1 cup steamed carrots
    AND Mixed Green Salad
    AND cup sweet potato or cup brown rice
    AND 1 apple
1500 CALORIE MEAL PLAN
Breakfast : 1 Protein Unit + 1 Fruit
Examples:
  • Protein powder in blender with 1 cup nonfat milk or soy milk and 1 cup blueberries

    OR:

  • 1/3 Cup soy nugget cereal
    WITH 1 Cup Fat-Free Milk or plain soy milk
    AND 1 cup blueberries

    OR:

  • 7 Egg Whites (hard boiled or cooked with pan spray as an omelet)
    WITH grapefruit

    OR:

  • 1 cup nonfat cottage cheese
    AND 1 cup pineapple
Lunch: 2 Protein Units + 2 vegetables + salad +1 grain + 1 fruit
Example:
  • 6-8 ounces chicken or turkey breast, fish, tuna, or shellfish or 2 units Soy Protein
    WITH 4 Cups of Salad Greens with Seasoned Vinegar
    AND 2 cups steamed green beans
    AND cup brown rice
    AND 1 large orange
PM Snack: 1 Protein Unit + 1 Fruit (or Protein Bar)
Example:
  • 1 ounce protein powder in blender with 1 cup water and banana
  • Protein Bar with about 15 grams protein, 200 calories or less
Dinner : 2 Protein Units + 2 vegetables + salad + 1 grain + 1 fruit
Example:
  • 6-8 ounces Skinless Poultry Breast, Fish or Shellfish or 2 units Soy protein
    AND 1 cup broccoli + 1 cup steamed carrots
    AND tossed green salad with seasoned vinegar
    AND cup sweet potato or brown rice
    AND 1 cup watermelon
PLANNING YOUR HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

Regular physical activity is essential for long-term weight control, stress reduction, and overall health. Experts recommend that you participate in both aerobic activity and resistance exercise.

Aerobic Activity

Aerobic activity strengthens the heart and bums calories. You can begin planning an aerobic exercise program by following the "FITT" guidelines below.

Frequency: Do aerobic exercises 3-5 times per week, depending on your fitness level. If you are just starting out, you may want to do multiple, short exercise sessions on a daily basis instead.

Intensity: Your goal is to exercise at 60-90% of your maximum heart rate, depending on your fitness level. To determine your exercise intensity, follow these simple steps:

    Step 1 Calculate your maximum heart rate (HRmax):220 - your age
    Step 2 Calculate your training heart rate: (HR max) x (0.60 - 0.90) NOTE:This is your goal!!!
    Step 3 Calculate your I minute heart rate during exercise:
    => Find your pulse at the side of your neck or at your wrist.
    => Count your pulse for 10 seconds.
    => Multiple this number by 6.
    => How does this number compare to your training heart rate goal in Step 2?
Time: Exercise continuously for 20-60 minutes, depending on your fitness level. If you are just starting out, you may want to do multiple sessions of shorter duration (i.e. IO minutes).

Type: Do aerobic or uninterrupted activity which raises your heart and breathing rates over a period of time. This includes brisk walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, or stair climbing. Try alternating different activities so that you don't get bored.

Resistance Exercise
Resistance exercise strengthens bones, builds muscle, and increases metabolism. This type of exercise should be performed 2 times per week and can be performed with dumb bells, weight machines, therabands, or your body's own resistance (e.g. push ups, sit ups, dips, leg lifts),

SAFETY TIPS
  • Be sure to speak with your physician before starting a new exercise program.
  • Wear loose fitting, comfortable clothing. Invest in light-weight shoes with good arch support and well-cushioned midsole to prevent ankle, foot, and knee problems.
  • Warm up for 5 -1 0 minutes (with light exercise) before advancing to your training exercise intensity. Cool down for 5-1 0 minutes after your work out.
  • Drink water before, during, and after each exercise session!